The ban on asbestos far from seeing a reduction in the amount of safes and cabinets that contained asbestos instead saw a surge, as thousands of contaminated safes became available on the second-hand market as they were removed from all over Europe. With high costs associated with asbestos disposal and a low level of awareness when it came to the issue of asbestos in safes and cabinets, huge quantities of these contaminated products have been sold, sometimes being passed off a "almost new" having been re-sprayed and refitted. In Ireland’s case, importation of contaminated safes, fire cabinets and vaults, via the U.K. has happened on an industrial scale and continued well after our national asbestos ban thanks to the free movement of goods within Europe right up until Brexit.
In the UK, marketing documents for safes that should be presumed to contain asbestos are common. The burgeoning nostalgia market for ornate antique safes in particular, has added to the problem, seeing asbestos contamination brought back into homes and businesses.
Asbestos Door Seals
Chrysotile asbestos was most widely used in door seals on safes, fireproof safes, and fireproof filing cabinets. This invariably took the form of woven asbestos tape adhered around the door frame against which the door would close. It is this woven tape that causes many to be most concerned. Abrasion caused by the opening and shutting of the safe door or filing cabinet door in such close proximity to the user is a high-risk issue, particularly as someone could be opening and closing a unit for decades in a closed environment such as an office.
A study by the BZR Institute in Bonn, Germany, found that asbestos fibres released through abrasion by opening and closing a light metal door on an asbestos fire seal released enough asbestos fibres to exceed the maximum European exposure limit after just three opening and closing cycles.
Chrysotile asbestos fibres, which in the case of safe and cabinet manufacturing are the main type of asbestos fibres we are concerned with, are highly carcinogenic if inhaled. Breathing in air containing even tiny amounts of asbestos fibres of the kind that may result from the opening and closing of a safe or filing cabinet door fitted with asbestos door seals, can lead to asbestos-related diseases such as asbestosis and cancers of the lungs and chest lining.
A safe or cabinet that contains asbestos within its structure is also a danger to maintenance technicians or others called to work on such units. Due to their age most of these units are quite likely to have a mechanical key or combination lock and therefore likely to have a lock-out event at some stage. On many occasions this requires the safe, cabinet body or door, to be drilled open. Drilling a contaminated safe or cabinet will result in amounts of airborne dust containing asbestos in one of its most dangerous forms due to its incorporation into the body of many safes and cabinets as an anti-combustion filling material or as a curing agent in cement.
Older safes may have holes intentionally present in the top interior walls which were originally intended to allow steam resulting from the heating of a mixture of asbestos and mica in the safe's walls to escape into the interior. Unfortunately these holes also allow asbestos leakage into a safe as the mixture breaks down with age. This leaves a toxic white, or sometime orange, residue in the bottom of such units, often mistaken for either rust or ordinary dust. The danger of this type of contamination in the home has actually increased in the last few years along with the unfortunate and dangerous trend of refurbishing old ornate safes for decorative use, as drinks cabinets, or for the storage of whiskey collections. Something that is encouraged largely out of a sense of nostalgia by the UK safe industry, with some companies now specialising in refurbishing such units, none of which seem to have an asbestos removal procedure.
Source Of Supply In Ireland
In answering this question, we relied on what industry sources told us and on examining the trade in second-hand safes on-line. We also took note of the brands of contaminated safes and document cabinets commonly found in Ireland, the majority of which were manufactured in the U.K. and France.
All of the sources in the second-hand safe industry we talked to said that second-hand safes had three main sources.
- Safes removed from banks and post offices in Ireland.
- Units bought at auctions in the UK and Ireland.
- Units "sent for disposal" imported by container load directly from safe companies.
The Association Of Insurance Surveyors Safe List
The Association of Insurance Surveyors safe list first published in 2005 was widely circulated to insurers in Ireland and became very quickly the bible of insurance ratings for the safe and the insurance industry here. The list contains hundreds of safes which, unknown to the insurance industry, would be presumed to contain asbestos and many units that have already positively identified as containing asbestos, however, no mention is made of the widespread use of asbestos in older safes in the AIS list or the fact that the sale or placing on the market of any product that contains asbestos was illegal in both the UK and Ireland by 2005, and still is.
All of the safes listed in the AIS safe list, some over a hundred years old are given a “recommended” insurance cover amount in pounds Sterling which the introduction to the list states is “appropriate for use in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Eire and AiS makes no representation or promise that it is appropriate for use outside these territories.”
As if to dispel any doubt that this list was intended to aid in the sale of safes manufactured during the period when asbestos was in common use in their production, the 2007 issue of the AIS list had the following comment in its forward: “Prior to the 2006 edition of the Safe List many old safes were downgraded because there were doubts regarding their ability to withstand modern methods of attack and because of the age of the bolt work and locks and probable general lack of maintenance. A number of suppliers of reconditioned safes commented on this and because of these comments AiS commissioned the BRE to carry out tests on a number of older pre BSEN-1143-1 safes ranging from the equivalent of Grade 0 to the equivalent of Grades 4 and 5. These tests were carried out in January 2007. The barrier materials of all the safes tested stood up to the modern attack methods carried out by BRE remarkably well. In view of these results the Committee reviewed the cash ratings of a number of older safes and where considered justified, the ratings were increased from those of the previous List. If older safes are to be accepted at the cash ratings recommended in the Safe List they must be serviced at regular intervals by safe engineers in accordance with BS 7582:2005 Code of Practice for Reconditioning of Used Safes."
British Standard BS7582
This brings us to the second of the two documents aimed at the second-hand safe market that appeared from organisations in the UK in 2005 and has been referenced in every edition of the AIS safe list. The British Standards Institute Code of Practice for Reconditioning of Used Safes BS7582:2005 which was reviewed in 2012 & 2015 and has remained unchanged. This standard that received input from some of the same people involved with the AIS safe list, is as the name suggests, a standard for reconditioning safes for re-sale that according to the standard would include safes manufactured as far back as 1975 when asbestos use in safe production was not only commonplace but under some standards was a requirement. Yet, the BS7582:2005 standard makes no mention of the likely presence of asbestos in such safes whatsoever, which would seem a huge dereliction of duty of care to the safe technicians who might refer to it.
The identity of the individual AIS safe committee members responsible for drafting the AIS safe list and that had input into BS7582:2005 is also worth noting. Contrary to what many in the insurance industry in Ireland believed the Association of Insurance Surveyors safe committee, far from being a committee of “Insurance Surveyors”, is and was almost entirely composed of people directly involved in, and who would benefit from, the sale of second-hand safes. Second-hand safes that were in plentiful supply in the UK in 2005 and ever since.
HSA Enforcement Notice
After some sustained communication with the Health and Safety Authority on the issue, the HSA issued a legislation and compliance notice in 2019, however, having consulted with some unnamed "third parties" the resulting HSA notice was factually incorrect and contrary to official European expert advice.
The HSA notice states: “use of asbestos (in safes and cabinets) was generally phased out from the 1960’s to the 1980’s”. A statement that is factually incorrect as according to a manufacturer survey conducted in Germany in 2000, that the HSA were fully aware of, asbestos was still used quite widely in the 1980s in fire-retardant door seals, while a major French manufacturer with a base in Ireland stated that some of their most popular products had door seals that contained asbestos right up until 1995.
As Germany would have been ahead of many other countries regarding this, and as there are large amounts of evidence of asbestos in French safe and cabinet production as late as 1997, the HSA statement stating use of asbestos (in safes and cabinets) was generally phased out from the 1960’s to the 1980’s” is not one based on facts. Far more alarming however is the HSA statement “A seal in good condition should not present any risk of exposure to asbestos”.
This statement runs completely contrary to the BZR Institute study on the subject, which showed an asbestos strip in perfect condition releases enough fibres release through abrasion by opening and closing even an exceptionally light metal door to exceed the maximum European exposure limit after just three opening and closing cycles. It also completely ignores the fact that asbestos strips breakdown over time, so it would not be technically possible for any asbestos strip over twenty years old to be in “good condition”.
These obvious problems with the HSA enforcement notice were highlighted by Certified Safes Ireland™ and by the European Security Systems Association (ESSA) as soon as it was published, and have yet to be corrected.
As things stand today in March 2021 safes and cabinets that contain asbestos continue to be sold on a daily basis, all over Ireland, by prominent safe suppliers and in private sales. Large number of these units are not only in circulation, but more are currently being removed from bank and post office closures where there is no accountability for their disposal, nor a requirement to verify that removal and disposal was done taking in account asbestos. Most of these units make their way back on to the second-hand safe market.
The HSA, the body responsible for protecting workers and office staff, have taken no action to stop the illegal sale of these units and continue to refer to a notice that is factually incorrect, highly misleading and has ignored expert advice from the European Security Systems Association (ESSA) and Ireland’s NSAI expert on the subject.
Certified Safes Ireland™ wrote to the Association of Insurance Surveyors (UK) safe committee in November 2019 pointing out that the organisation had placed hundreds of safes that should be presumed to contain asbestos on the market in Ireland and naming several units that a manufacturer had confirmed contained asbestos that were listed in the organisation 2015 list. No response has ever been received and the list continues to be used in the Republic of Ireland as a reference for second-hand safes by insurers and second-hand safe dealers.
Recently, Mavis Nye, President and Co-Founder of Mavis Nye Foundation (MNF) an asbestos awareness group in the UK who herself has been suffering with Mesothelioma caused by asbestos in the workplace, highlighted the recent case reported in the Evening Standard of an office worker who had died at the age of just 49 from asbestos related cancer. The coroner concluded she “had been exposed to asbestos in an office environment during her working life”. However, the actual source of her exposure remains a mystery.
Click below to view Law Society Gazette article or HSA notice:
(Recorded in 2019)
Safes, strongrooms, document, data and filing cabinets that contain asbestos have continued to be sold as "second-hand" or "refurbished" in Ireland and the UK, often by well-known safe suppliers and more recently accompanied by claims to the practice's "green" credentials. The European ban on asbestos in 2005 far from seeing a move by the UK safe industry to reduce the number of safes and cabinets that contained asbestos in circulation instead saw the sudden appearance of documents that could be used to promote the refurbishment and sale of asbestos contaminated safes when none existed before.
The most well-known of these documents are the Association of Insurance Surveyors safe list first published in 2005 which contained hundreds of safes which should be presumed to contain asbestos and many units that have already been positively identified as containing asbestos, and the British Standards Institution "Code of Practice for Reconditioning of Used Safes" BS7582:2005 also published in 2005 and later reviewed in 2012, 2015 and 2017 remaining unchanged. This BSI standard is as the name suggests, a standard for reconditioning safes for re-sale that according to the standard itself, would include safes manufactured as far back as 1975 when asbestos use in safe production was commonplace. Yet, the BS7582:2005 standard makes no mention of the likely presence of asbestos in such safes whatsoever.
Contaminated units can now be found in homes, offices and financial institutions in every part of the Ireland and the UK.
The Milner's 212 Patent
In 1824 Thomas Milner secured an official contract to supply the UK War Office with ammunition boxes. Milner observed that if a mixture that contained asbestos was used to insulate ammunition boxes it would give off steam when the boxes were heated, so he reasoned that if asbestos was used as cavity insulation in safes with holes punched in the inner walls, steam could escape into the interior and protect the contents from destruction in a fire. He patented this innovation in 1840, and prosperous Victorians literally queued up to buy this new protection. When the patent lapsed in 1854, most safe manufacturers in the UK made quick use of the idea, quickly followed by their European counterparts.
Milner was known for demonstrating his safes' capacity to preserve money and documents by placing the safes inside huge public bonfires and then dowsing the fire and removing the surviving contents to the astonished applause of the onlookers. A publicity technique that was imitated by other safes manufactures not only in the UK but all over Europe as they applied Milner’s idea in the 1850s.
Most safes manufactured under Milner’s patent can easily be recognised by a distinctive ornate brass plate with the number "212" displayed on top of an elaborate crest. 212 degrees Fahrenheit is the boiling point of water. The temperature at which the asbestos insulation would produce steam saturating and therefore protecting the contents of the safe. This plate is still a very common site on the second-hand and "refurbished" market in Ireland and the UK.
Asbestos In Safes 1850s To The 1990s
Almost all, if not all safe and strongroom manufacturers in business from the 1850s to the 1970s used asbestos as a fire retardant insulation, as fire retardant insulation strips around a safe or cabinet door, or as a curing agent for cement inside the cavity walls of safes, strongrooms and cabinets.
Pictured below are two Chubb Record Cabinets from 1967 (middle number on serial no.) which were offered for sale through a classified ad site in 2020 having ended use in the same year. The Chubb Record Cabinet 6240, 6220, 4620, 1812 and the 6000/8000 series file produced before 1970 were fitted with an asbestos rope around the rebate, one of the most dangerous places asbestos can be present on a safe or cabinet. After 1970 Chubb replaced the rope with a fire retardant intumescent asbestos free strip.
One of the few surveys available, an informal survey conducted in 1992 by FuB (Forschungs- und Prüfgemeinschaft Geldschränke und Tresoranlagen), a German safe manufacturers’ organisation, on the use of asbestos in German safe manufacturing, revealed that asbestos was still being quite widely used in German safe production. According to the survey 83% of safe manufacturers still used asbestos into the 1980's. We can only say that this stopped in Germany when asbestos was banned there in 1993 but without doubt continued elsewhere in Europe into the 90s.
An example of the continued use of asbestos in safes is contained in the short list of safes (shown below), from well-known manufacturer Fichet-Bauche (France), all of which we have confirmed contain asbestos. The "end of fabrication" dates may come as a surprise to many considering the information that the UK safe industry in particular has been circulating since 2005. The safes marked with a (*) have had "recommended" covers on the Association of Insurance Surveyors (UK) safe list since 2005 but these are a just a few examples amongst many.
|Reference||Type||Part Containing Asbestos||End of fabrication|
|3010||Safe||door & walls||1981|
|4010||Safe||door & walls||1981|
|BAR||Safe||door & walls||1981*|
|GC 68||Safe||door & walls||1984|
|Entreprise||Safe||door & walls||1987*|
|PF 175 GC||Vault door||door||1984|
|PF 280 GC||Vault door||door||1984|
|BR||Fireproof cabinet||walls & joints||1970|
|ORDINA 110||Fireproof cabinet||joints||1995*|
|ORDINA 210||Fireproof cabinet||joints||1995*|
|ORDINA 310||Fireproof cabinet||joints||1995*|
|COMPACT 50||Fireproof cabinet||joints||1995|
Asbestos And Open Borders
As various jurisdictions and manufacturers stopped using asbestos at different times one might ask why we can not rely on the dates of national asbestos bans to ascertain if a safe manufactured by a particular company might contain asbestos. For example, Sweden banned asbestos in 1982 so it should follow that asbestos should not be present in safes and cabinets manufactured by a Swedish manufacturer after 1982.
Sadly, this is not the case. Before European certification was introduced in 1998 there was no regular accredited auditing of safes, cabinets and strongrooms for hazardous substances, many of these types of units are still on the second-hand market. Then there is the issue of open borders within the EU which has allowed contaminated units easily cross into jurisdictions where asbestos had been banned from jurisdictions where it was still being used in manufacturing until it was banned Europe-wide in 2005.
Example below is a list of cabinets from Swedish manufacturer Rosengrens that we have verified have asbestos. Again, note the end of fabrication dates some of which far exceed Sweden's national ban on asbestos use.
|Reference||Type||Part Containing Asbestos||End of fabrication|
|1020||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|1120||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|1220||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|2020||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|2120||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|2220||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|2540||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|3040||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|4020||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|4040||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|5020||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|6020||Paper Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|2520 T||Data Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|4120 T||Data Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|5020 T||Data Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|5140 T||Data Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|6020 T||Data Fireproof Cabinet||joints||1980|
|2036||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1981|
|2234||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1982|
|3036||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1983|
|3135||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1984|
|3234||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1985|
|8036||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1986|
|8234||Fireproof cabinet + theft||joints||1987|
When A Safe Or Cabinet Must Be Presumed Contaminated
Where The Asbestos-Free Status Of Any Pre-2000 Safe Or Cabinet Cannot Be Established Or Is In Anyway Uncertain, It Must Be Presumed To Contain Asbestos.
Any safe or cabinet that does not display a metal certification plate riveted to the inside of its door or that is not marked by the manufacturer to say that it does not contain asbestos, must be presumed to contain asbestos. In short, any safe, cabinet or strongroom that does not display a clear indication of the date of manufacture from the manufacturer is a huge red flag. As we said at the outset, even Thomas Milner who invented the use of asbestos in safes clearly marked his products and to do so is to be generally expected. A safe appearing with no identifying marks should always strike any professional as highly suspect and a very likely candidate to conceal hazardous substances or other nasty surprises.
Hand written stickers, poor quality plastic plates, badges that look out of place, or undertakings from a supplier (regardless of who they are) that a unit does not contain asbestos are also signs that something is not right. For the unscrupulous traders who deal in dangerous safes, cabinets and strongrooms, misrepresentation is a regular business practice.
When A Safe Or Cabinet Is Asbestos Free
For safes, cabinets, and strongrooms a European certification plate with a date after 2000 is a guarantee that a unit is asbestos free. The verification of the absence of harmful substances being a pre-requisite of European testing and certification. A certification plate will always be fixed to the inside of a safe, cabinet or strongroom door or in the case of a filing cabinet the plate can be found to the left or right of the top drawer. This will never be a sticker or plastic badge. A genuine certification plate will clearly state the certification standard number, the manufacturing date and the name of the certification body.